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像素格式

像素格式

像素格式(pixel format)像素色彩按分量的大小和排列。这种格式以每个像素所使用的总位数以及用于存储像素色彩的红、绿、蓝和 alpha 分量的位数指定。

像素格式

像素格式描述了像素数据存储所用的格式。定义了像素在内存中的编码方式。下面的像素格式 (PF_*) 类型定义了:
本地格式 (PF_A8R8G8B8 以及其他大量的不同的类型)
这意味着在内存中使用了本地储存方式(big endian或者little endian,包括16,24,32位)的整形数据。同时意味着可以把PF_A8R8G8B8格式的图片看作一个32位的整形数组,在16进制表现为0xAARRGGBB。这些字母的意义我们在稍后会提供。
位组格式Byte formats(PF_BYTE_*)
在这种格式下每个通道对应一个byte,通道在内存理的组织方式和格式名称定义的相同。例如PF_BYTE_RGBA格式的像素包含了四个byte,一个对应红色,一个绿色,一个蓝色,以及一个alpha通道。
Short格式(PF_SHORT_*)
在这种格式下每个通道对应一个unsigned short数据(16 bit整型),通道在内存里的组织方式和格式名称定义的相同。例如PF_BYTE_RGBA格式的像素包含了四个unsigned short数据,一个对应红色,一个绿色,一个蓝色,以及一个alpha通道。
Float16 格式(PF_FLOAT16_*)
在这种格式下每个通道对应一个16 bit浮点数,通道在内存理的组织方式和格式名称定义的相同。例如PF_BYTE_RGBA格式的像素包含了四个16 bit浮点数数据,一个对应红色,一个绿色,一个蓝色,以及一个alpha通道。16 bit浮点数也被称为半浮点(half float),非常类似于IEEE 对32bit单精度浮点数标准,只不过它只有5个exponent位和10个mantissa位而已。值得注意,这并不是一个标准的C++数据,CPU对其支持也不够好,不过GPU却能如同处理32bit浮点数一样高效的处理它。
Float32格式(PF_FLOAT32_*)
在这种格式下每个通道对应一个32 bit浮点数,通道在内存理的组织方式和格式名称定义的相同。例如PF_BYTE_RGBA格式的像素包含了四个32 bit浮点数数据,一个对应红色,一个绿色,一个蓝色,以及一个alpha通道。在C++中,这个数据就是普通的float。just “float”。
压缩格式formats (PF_DXT[1-5])
S3TC压缩纹理格式。

颜色通道

颜色通道中R,G,B,A,L 以及 X 的意义是:
R
红色成分,通常范围从0.0(没有红色)到1.0(全部的红色)。
G
绿色成分,通常范围从0.0(没有绿色)到1.0(全部的绿色)。
B
蓝色成分,通常范围从0.0(没有蓝色)到1.0(全部的蓝色)。
A
alpha(不透明度)成分,通常范围从0.0(完全透明)到1.0(不透明)。
L
亮度成分,通常范围从0.0(黑暗)到1.0(全白)。最终这个成分会被分散到RGB每个中完成最终的图像效果。
X
这个是被系统忽略的成分。
对于RGBL通道来说,默认的情况下设置为0。而Alpha通道却不同,在默认的情况下被设定为1,代表不透明。

全部格式

位组格式
PF_BYTE_RGB, PF_BYTE_BGR, PF_BYTE_BGRA, PF_BYTE_RGBA, PF_BYTE_L, PF_BYTE_LA, PF_BYTE_A
Short格式
PF_SHORT_RGBA
Float16 格式
PF_FLOAT16_R, PF_FLOAT16_RGB, PF_FLOAT16_RGBA
Float32 格式
PF_FLOAT32_R, PF_FLOAT32_RGB, PF_FLOAT32_RGBA
bit 本地格式
PF_L8, PF_A8, PF_A4L4, PF_R3G3B2
bit 本地格式
PF_L16, PF_R5G6B5, PF_B5G6R5, PF_A4R4G4B4, PF_A1R5G5B5
bit 本地格式
PF_R8G8B8, PF_B8G8R8
bit 本地格式
PF_A8R8G8B8, PF_A8B8G8R8, PF_B8G8R8A8, PF_R8G8B8A8, PF_X8R8G8B8, PF_X8B8G8R8, PF_A2R10G10B10 PF_A2B10G10R10
压缩格式
PF_DXT1, PF_DXT2, PF_DXT3, PF_DXT4, PF_DXT5

格式笔记

NUKE:
nuke的图像数据保存在channel中,我们只需要用到其中的r,g,b三个channel。这三个channel是相互独立的,可以分别从中读取数据,每一次可以读取图像的一行像素。这样看来,最合理的线性存储方式就是每个channel的数据作为一组来保存,即:RRRR…RRRRGGGG…GGGGBBBB…BBBB的形似。
FFMPEG:
ffmpeg支持的编码比较多,如果按照像素格式来分,主要有两类,一类是是RGB,另一类是YUV。对于影像类编码,比如xvid/mpeg4之类,颜色模式只能是YUV,甚至仅仅支持yuv420p这一种。因为要考虑到与nuke相结合,这里只看rgb像素格式中的rgb24。rgb24的线性格式为:RRRR…RRRRGGGG…GGGGBBBB…BBBB,可以很方便的和nuke中的channel数据结合。
ffmpeg提供了一个函数可以在各种像素格式之间转换。yuv420p的Cr和Cb分量只有Y分量大小的一半,因此需要的空间只有rgb24的2/3。
libquicktime:
libquicktime中没有与上面RGB24一致的原始rgb格式,有一种rgb888格式。其线性格式为:RGBRGBRGB…。libquicktime在保存帧的时候也要先将rgb转换为yuv,不过这个过程是自动完成的。
从rgb24到rgb888的转换:
pFrameBufferLinear[y*w*3+3*x] = pFrameRGB_r[Y*w+i]; //R
pFrameBufferLinear[y*w*3+3*x+1] = pFrameRGB_g[Y*w+i]; //G
pFrameBufferLinear[y*w*3+3*x+2] = pFrameRGB_b[Y*w+i]; //B

WPF格式

在WPF中,图像的像素格式较之于GDI+中有不少变化。比如新增了CMYK印刷通道的支持,对灰度图片的灰阶支持也有长足的进步,在颜色空间方面,新增了scRGB颜色空间,使图像的色彩处理能力有很大的提高。
为了方便加深了解,我将它们按格式性质和色彩空间大致进行了分类。比如将Gray类的放在一起,将Index类的又放在一起….
(1) BlackWhite:
用于显示黑白两种色值的像素格式(非黑即白)。
(2) Gray2:
2BPP(Bits Per Pixel,位/像素)的灰色通道。允许四种灰阶。
(3) Gray4:
4BPP的灰度通道,允许16种灰阶值表示灰色。
(4) Gray8:
显示8BPP的灰度通道,允许256种灰阶值表示灰色。
(5) Gray16:
16BPP的灰色通道,最多允许65536种灰阶值表示灰色。这种格式的Gamma是1.0。
(6) Gray32Float:
32BPP的灰度通道,允许超过40亿灰阶。此格式的Gamma值是1.0。
(7) Indexed1:
指定2种颜色作为调色板的像素格式。
(8) Indexed2:
指定4种颜色作为调色板的像素格式。
(9) Indexed4:
指定16种颜色作为调色板的像素格式。
(10) Indexed8:
指定256种颜色作为调色板的像素格式。
(11) Bgr24:
Bgr24像素格式是一种采用24BPP的sRGB格式。 每个颜色通道(蓝色blue, 绿色green, 红色red)各占8BPP(位/像素)。
(12) Bgra32:
Bgra32像素格式是一种32BPP的sRGB格式。每个颜色通道(蓝色blue, 绿色green, 红色red)各占8BPP(位/像素),与Bgr24不同的是,它还有用于表现不透明度的alpha通道(8BPP)。
(13) Bgr101010:
Bgr101010像素格式是一种采用32BPP(位/像素)的sRGB格式。每个颜色通道(蓝色blue, 绿色green, 红色red)各占10BPP(位/像素)。
(14) Bgr32:
Bgr32像素格式是一种采用32BPP(位/像素)的sRGB格式。与Bgr101010格式不同的是,它的每个颜色通道(蓝色blue, 绿色green, 红色red)各占8BPP(位/像素)。
(15) Bgr555:
Bgr555也是一种sRGB格式,它采用16BPP(位/像素). 它的每个颜色通道(蓝色blue, 绿色green, 红色red)各占5BPP(位/像素)。
(16) Bgr565:
Bgr565像素格式是一种16BPP(位/像素)的sRGB格式。它的每个颜色通道(蓝色blue, 绿色green, 红色red)分别占5BPP,6BPP,5BPP(位/像素)。
(17) Pbgra32:
采用32BPP的一种基于sRGB的像素格式。每个颜色通道(蓝色blue, 绿色green, 红色red,Alpha通道)各占8BPP(位/像素)。每种颜色通道是经过与Alpha值预处理之后的。
(18) Prgba64:
是一种基于sRGB格式,采用64BPP。每个颜色通道(蓝色blue, 绿色green, 红色red,Alpha通道)各占32BPP(位/像素)。每种颜色通道是经过与Alpha值预处理之后的。这种格式的Gamma是1.0。
(19) Rgb24:
是一种基于sRGB格式,采用24BPP。每个颜色通道(蓝色blue, 绿色green, 红色red)各占8BPP(位/像素)。
(20) Rgb48:
是一种基于sRGB格式,采用48BPP。每个颜色通道(蓝色blue, 绿色green, 红色red)各占16BPP(位/像素)。这种格式的Gamma是1.0。
(21) Rgba64:
是一种基于sRGB格式,采用64BPP。每个颜色通道(蓝色blue, 绿色green, 红色red,Alpha通道)各占16BPP(位/像素)。这种格式的Gamma是1.0。
(22) Rgb128Float:
是一种基于ScRGB格式,采用128BPP。每个颜色通道各占32BPP(位/像素)。这种格式的Gamma是1.0。
(23) Rgba128Float:
是一种基于ScRGB格式,采用128BPP。每个颜色通道(蓝色blue, 绿色green, 红色red,Alpha通道)各占32BPP(位/像素)。这种格式的Gamma是1.0。
(24) Prgba128Float:
是一种基于ScRGB格式,采用128BPP。每个颜色通道(蓝色blue, 绿色green, 红色red,Alpha通道)各占32BPP(位/像素)。每种颜色通道是经过与Alpha值预处理之后的。这种格式的Gamma是1.0。
(25) Cmyk32:
用于表现印刷色格式,采用32BPP,共四个颜色通道即C、M、Y、K(青色Cyan, 品红Magenta, 黄色Yellow和黑色blacK),各占8PP。

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